Jonathan Zrake (NYU) gave a very nice oral candidacy exam today in which he described his relativistic MHD plus cosmic ray particle code that he and Andrew MacFadyen built to test acceleration mechanisms. He gets enormous accelerations and shows that they are—in some circumstances—caused by many little shocks in the turbulent post-shock fluid rather than the big shock (think relativistic outflow or blast wave) behind which the turbulence is growing.

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